Although both dyskinesia and OFF episodes are common aspects of living with Parkinson’s disease and become more prevalent later in the disease course. Levodopa-induced dyskinesia often involves involuntary muscle movements such as twitches, jerks, twisting and writhing. While “OFF” time occurs when Levodopa is wearing off and the patient has less control of their movements. These are referred to motor fluctuations.

While differentiating between dyskinesia and OFF episodes can be challenging, this article aims to highlight the distinguishing factors of each and discuss the different methods in which they can be managed.

Dyskinesia

Dyskinesia is an involuntary muscle movement and irregular in motion. Patients may experience writhing or wriggling in their arms or feet, rocking or head bobbing, or swaying.

OFF Time

“OFF” time refers to when Parkinson’s medications are not working well and there is an increase in troublesome symptoms such as: tremor, increased clumsiness, slowness of movement, shuffling when walking, and muscle cramping/stiffness.

Read more about additional treatment options

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Amantadine Products

Amantadine is also an older medication that was initially developed to help prevent influenza Type A. It was subsequently found to have a mild but definite effect on Parkinson’s without worsening typical symptoms. More [...]

Invasive Therapies

Fortunately, there are more advanced options to consider if medical therapies do not seem to alleviate the symptoms of dyskinesia: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Deep brain stimulation (DBS) should be considered for patients who [...]

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